Gingivitis is a common disease in humans, with different causes depending on the age group. Older people are more often affected, while gingivitis is significantly less common in children. The clinical condition is characterized by red, swollen and painful gums that easily bleed on contact. A concomitant symptom is the bad breath.
If gingivitis is left untreated, periodontitis can develop, affecting the tissues that keep the teeth stable in the dental alveoli.
The progress of gingivitis and periodontitis can be accompanied by the following complications:
- Recurrent abscesses of gingiva with painful purulent collections;
- Progressive damage to the periodontal ligament;
- Progressive damage to underlying bone tissue with loss of alveolar bone;
- Pathological dental mobility;
- Tooth loss;
In acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), complications can be significantly more severe. In this case, the infection can spread to the entire marginal region, along with the alveolar bone and periodontium.
The following serious complications may occur:
- Complete destruction of gingival tissues in the affected areas;
- Large ulcers leaving permanent wounds on the gums;
- Unstable teeth and loss of teeth;
If ANUG is not treated properly recurrence is more likely to occur. This can lead to prolonged halitosis, bleeding and gradual withdrawal of the gums. In rare cases ANUG can lead to gangrene affecting the lips and cheeks. The complication manifests itself as massive tissue necrosis and its treatment requires widespread excision of dead tissues.
Inflammatory gum disease is also associated with a number of other complications, involving various organs and tissues throughout the body.
- Cardiovascular diseases;
- Pulmonary infections;
- In the context of concomitant pregnancy, complications may manifest themselves in preterm birth or lower weight of the child;
Although affected individuals with gingivitis are at increased risk of developing these complications, there is no clear evidence that gingival disease directly causes them.